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Tag Archives: Refutatio

Ancient Secrets for Better Public Speaking:
Answer Counter Arguments

This is the fourth in a series of five posts about classical techniques of rhetoric used by famed orators such as Socrates, Plato and Cicero. If you missed any in the series, you can find links near the end of this post.

RefutatioO.K. You’ve introduced yourself. You’ve laid out what you’re going to say. You’ve even discussed evidence that backs you up. You’re ready close, right?


Now you must go through what the classical Greek and Roman orators called the Refutatio. This is the part of your presentation where you address counter arguments, doubts and concerns.

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