This is the fourth in a series of five posts about classical techniques of rhetoric used by famed orators such as Socrates, Plato and Cicero. If you missed any in the series, you can find links near the end of this post.
Now you must go through what the classical Greek and Roman orators called the Refutatio. This is the part of your presentation where you address counter arguments, doubts and concerns.
For this part of the speech, you want to know what counter arguments listeners might have for what you’ve said so far, and refute them. For example,
- If this is a job interview, you might say something like “I recognize that I do not have all the requirements of the job …”
- If this is a presentation to convince the audience to take some action, you might say “Some may argue that …”
- If this is a sales pitch, you might say “You have probably looked at my competitors and I recognize that they have good features to offer too …”
But, guess what? There’s a “but”! All of these counter arguments you bring up can easily be refuted. So you do just that:
- “I recognize that I do not have all the requirements of the job … but I have experience that is similar and can be applied in this manner …”
- “Some may argue that … but research has shown that this uses faulty logic …”
- “You have probably looked at my competitors and I recognize that they have good features to offer too … however, they do not offer the level of customer service we do …”
So let’s sum up what we’ve covered so far. The structure of a good presentation using the classical rhetoric techniques of the Greeks and Romans is a follows:
- Introduce yourself as a likable authority on your topic.
- Tell the audience what you’re going to talk about.
- Lay out your facts, perspective or reasons for your position.
- Bring up counter arguments and refute them.
Now you’re ready to “seal the deal” and close up your presentation with the Peroratio, which I’ll discuss in my next post.
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